24 May 2021
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is strategically located next to the Arabian Gulf and shares a land border with Oman and Saudi Arabia. Formed in 1971, the UAE is a political and constitutional monarchy with a federal government.
The majority of the UAE’s citizens and residents live in Abu Dhabi, the UAE’s capital city, and Dubai, the nation’s commercial city. Most citizens and residents live harmoniously, and the UAE benefits from a very low crime rate[i].
Levels of perceived corruption within the UAE
The UAE ranks 40th (out of 194 countries) on TRACE’s 2020 Bribery Risk Matrix, which measures business bribery risk specifically.[ii] Indices measuring perceived corruption agree that the UAE experiences low levels of perceived corruption within the Middle East.
Legislation prohibiting corruption within the UAE
The UAE has rapidly evolved from a merchant trading hub to a major oil producer and more recently into a thriving, prosperous nation specialising in financial services, technology, space exploration, tourism and healthcare.
The Forbes Global 2000 lists several home-grown banks, airlines, port operators and hospitality firms that originated within the UAE. In addition, the UAE houses the regional hubs belonging to hundreds of multinational corporations.
This reference guide discusses the UAE’s approach to tackling bribery committed by multinational and private corporations located within the UAE. The UAE’s regulatory framework addressing bribery, corruption, fraud and money laundering is made up of a patchwork of federal and Emiri (local) legislation (Regulatory Framework).
The UAE’s Federal Penal Code (Federal Law No 3 of 1987) and Federal Human Resources Law (Law No. 11 of 2008) both prohibit acts of bribery involving public officials and individuals employed within the private sector. The UAE has adopted the United Nations Convention against Corruption, and the Convention’s definition of a “bribe” is incorporated into the national legislation.
Most government and public official posts are held by Emirati citizens. The UAE’s constitution—as well as media and libel laws—grants citizens a carte blanche right to privacy. However, more recently, the UAE’s prosecutorial authorities have stepped up enforcement actions taken against suspected bribery schemes. The UAE’s Federal Attorney General has acquiesced to the UAE’s media outlets naming and shaming public officials suspected of having committed bribery offences within a very limited few set of cases.
Anti-bribery obligations for multinational and private corporations within the UAE
Multinational companies must also be aware of very strict provisions within the Federal Penal Code mandating that:
Due to the lack of wider reporting on suspected investigations, enforcement actions and guidance from local prosecutorial authorities, local and regional compliance teams must develop strong working relationships with regional managers, agents and distributors. Relationships such as these enable compliance teams to enhance dialogue with supply chains and senior managers who work more closely with government officials and public procurement teams.
For this reason, multinational companies may find that devolving some enforcement of their respective global compliance programmes to regional compliance departments offers the best possible mechanism to ensure that regional anti-bribery strategies can be tailored to expansive on-the-ground risks. Regional compliance teams also have the knowledge and relationships to ensure that they can help the regional board to develop a risk register utilising tacit knowledge about regional bribery risks, on-the-ground events and mitigation strategies utilised by other regional peers and industry leaders.
How TRACE supports clients in the UAE
Anti-bribery regulations vary from region to region, and it is important to have a team on the ground that knows the local laws, is committed to commercial transparency and is prepared to handle any compliance challenges that arise. But companies of all sizes must also ensure they operate in accordance with anti-bribery laws that have extraterritorial reach—such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the UK Bribery Act—in part by implementing globally accepted compliance best practices.
Enforcement authorities have repeatedly stated that multinational companies should, among other measures:
Multinational companies are expected to “adequately” resource compliance and to continually monitor and improve processes. TRACE supports the compliance efforts of hundreds of multinational companies—many with operations in the Middle East—through a cost-sharing membership model that aims to help companies across all industry sectors more easily meet evolving compliance demands. TRACE also offers multilingual eLearning.
By working with both multinational companies and SMEs to increase commercial transparency, TRACE serves as a bridge between markets and helps to raise anti-bribery compliance standards in the UAE and beyond. The practical resources and tools offered by TRACE can help companies avoid legal, financial and reputational damage while improving business and fulfilling compliance obligations.
About Keystone Law Middle East
Keystone Law Middle East is a law firm that uses technology and modern working practices to drive productivity and deliver results – we are structured differently, we operate differently and we think differently. Supported by a team of over 400 lawyers globally we draw on international links and comprehensive experience, in dealing with every area of law impacting on businesses and private individuals. For more information, visit www.keystonelaw.me.
TRACE is a non-profit international business association dedicated to anti-bribery, compliance and good governance. Founded in 2001 to make it easier and less expensive for companies to navigate and mitigate business bribery risk, TRACE is credited with establishing anti-bribery standards that have been adopted by hundreds of companies worldwide. Driven by the needs of its members, TRACE is continuously developing tools and resources that power compliance programs. TRACE is headquartered in the United States and registered in Canada, with a presence on four continents. For more information, visit www.TRACEinternational.org.